India is a bustling hub for global imports and exports. With so many major ports in India that help to sustain India’s developing economy, corporations from all over the world are taking a closer look at India as a potential headquarters for global trade operations.
The nine coastal states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and West Bengal host the majority of seaports in India.
Tuticorin Port (Tamil Nadu)
Tuticorin Port is an all-weather port that attracts large volumes of global shipping traffic. Located inside an artificial harbour, it has an anchorage depth of 10 meters. Tuticorin was once known as the main port for maritime trade and pearl fishing. Main imports and exports include salt, grain, cooking oil, petroleum, and coal.
Cochin Port is one of the fastest-growing ports in India and the Arabian Sea. Nestled between the islands of Willingdon and Vallarpadam, it moves 11 million metric tons of imported goods alone each year. Imports and exports consist mainly of tea, coffee, spices, fertilizers, and mineral oils. With an anchorage depth of nearly 14 meters and a cargo depth of over nine meters, it can easily accommodate ships of over 500 feet in length.
Kamarajar Port Limited (Ennore)
With both railway and road links to support sea transport. Ennore Port handles large volumes of coal (over 16 million metric tons per year). There are plans in place to expand the port with three more multi-purpose berths and five container berths. The port is privately owned, unlike many Indian ports that are owned by the government. It has an anchorage depth of 16 meters and is a coastal breakwater port with a relatively small harbour. Ennore Port is located 24 kilometres from the Chennai Port on the Coromandel Coast.
Visakhapatnam Port (Vizag Port)
Vizag Port is the oldest shipyard in India. It is one of the only natural harbours in the Bay of Bengal. It was inaugurated as a major seaport in 1933 and manages 1.2 million metric tons of cargo in its 24 berths each year, including sea trade of iron ore, pellets, coal, aluminium, and oil. Plans are underway for continued modernization of the harbour. This port is getting the continued investment by the Indian government.
For those wondering about other seaports on the eastern side of India, Paradip port is one of them. The port is a weather port and is situated around 100 km east of Cuttack. The port is surrounded by a depth of 12 meters which is pretty amazing to hold around bulk carriers that weight over 60,000 DWT. It was constructed with the Second Five Year Plan period and has gradually gained a lot of importance over time.
The main component that this port is responsible for transporting around includes the iron ore, coal and some of the other dry cargo.
Haldia Port, Kolkata
Known as the “Gateway of Eastern India,” the Kolkata Port manages cargo that arrives from Australia and Southeast Asia. It utilizes two dock systems, Haldia docks and Kolkata docks. Where it is the busiest port for the trade of jute, and a major exporter of steel, iron ore, copper, leather, tea, and coal. Imports include heavy machinery, paper, fertilizers, chemical products, and crude oil. It’s a natural river port and can easily accommodate ships up to 500 feet in length.
Panambur Port (Mangalore)
Panambur Port is located in the coastal city of Mangalore and was inaugurated as a major seaport of India in 1974. It is a deep, all-weather port with 17 berths, and operates all year long. Serving as a trading point for Karnataka and Kerala, it moves many major imports like fertilizer, timber, wood pulp, petroleum, and more. Exports include coffee, iron ore, manganese, and cashew nuts.
Madras Port (Chennai Port)
When it comes to the second biggest seaport in India, the Chennai port takes the show away. It is also the third oldest port in India, dating back to 1881. It is situated around the Coromandel coast and is the main port for export and import in Tamil Nadu. This port is also one of the major reasons behind the stability of the state which does have a lot to say about this. The port now handles around 100 million cargo, as per the census around in 2015-16.
Apart from the port being of such amazing significance, the tourists can also explore the spots around which include quite a bunch of lighthouses and other spots that are too good to pass up on.
Mundra Port (Adani Port)
Mundra Port is the largest private port of India located on the north shores of the Gulf of Kutch near Mundra, Kutch district, Gujarat. Formerly operated by Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Limited owned by Adani Group, it was later expanded into Adani Ports & SEZ Limited managing several ports.
Deendayal Port (Kandla Port)
Located 90 kilometres from the Gulf of Kutch, the Kandla Port was built in the 1950s in the Kandla Creek area as the first export processing port in India. It is the biggest container port in India when it comes to the value and amount of cargo that travels through it each year. It’s also known as the most affluent and the busiest port. Thanks to its high profitability for exporting grain and importing oil. Today, imports include petroleum, heavy machinery, salt, textiles, and chemicals.
Nhava Sheva, (Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, JNPT), Maharashtra – The King Port
The largest container port in India situated in Konkan. It is one of the busiest ports across the country which is also often referred to as the King Port across the Arabian Sea. It is responsible for handling several goods for export and import. This port was built back in 1989 and is under complete control of the government at the moment. It is responsible for handling 56% of the total containers.
Some of the common goods that are transported via this port include textiles, carpets, boneless meat, machinery, vegetable oils, chemicals, etc.